MLA (Modern Language Association)
- Author-page method of citation.
- Created for scholars in English composition and literature.
- Author’s full name on first mention.
- Use of the “right” language for the audience being addressed.
- Present tense verb in signal phrase vs. past tense.
- Medium of publication designation (ex. Print, Web, etc.).
- Many purposes for writing and research.
APA (American Psychological Association)
- Author-date method of citation.
- Created for researchers in the social sciences.
- Authors’ last names only.
- Objective tone, scientific writing.
- Economy of expression.
- Past or present perfect tense verb in signal phrase*.
- DOI (digital object identifier) or document number.
- Two purposes for writing and research.
* Present tense is used “to discuss implications of the results and to present conclusions”